There are several prominent computational problems for which
simple iterative methods are widely preferred in practice despite
an absence of runtime or performance analysis (or "worse", actual
evidence that more sophisticated methods have superior
performance according to the usual criteria). These situations
raise interesting challenges for the analysis of algorithms.
We are concerned in this work with one such simple method: a
classical iterative algorithm for balancing matrices via scaling
transformations. This algorithm, which goes back to Osborne and
Israel Institute for Advanced Studies (Feldman building, Givat Ram), Eilat Hall
This is a survey talk about one of the main parts of what we call high-dimensional combinatorics. We start by equating a permutation with a permutation matrix. Namely, an nxn array of zeros and ones where every line (=row or column) contains exactly one 1. In general, a d-dimensional permutation is an array [n]x[n]x....x[n] (d+1 factors) of zeros and ones in which every line (now there are d+1 types of lines) contains exactly one 1. Many questions suggest themselves, some of which we have already solved, but many others are still wide opne. Here are a few examples:
Markoff triples are integer solutions to Markoff equation $x^2+y^2+z^2=3xyz$ which arose in Markoff's spectacular and fundamental work (1879) on diophantine approximation and has been henceforth ubiquitous in a tremendous variety of different fields in mathematics and beyond.
Abstract: I will give an introduction to the cohomology of universal covers of finite complexes. These groups are (for infinite covers) either trivial or infinite dimensional, but they have renormalized real valued Betti numbers. Their study is philosophically related to the topic of our year, and they have wonderful applications in geometry, group theory, topology etc and I hope to explain some of this.
Abstract: While algebraic topology is now well established as an applicable branch of mathematics, its emergence in neuroscience is surprisingly recent. In this talk I will present a summary of an ongoing joint project with mathematician and neuroscientists. I will start with some basic facts on neuroscience and the digital reconstruction of a rat’s neocortex by the Blue Brain Project in EPFL.
The family of high rank arithmetic groups is a class of groups playing an important role in various areas of mathematics. It includes SL(n,Z), for n>2 , SL(n, Z[1/p] ) for n>1, their finite index subgroups and many more.
A number of remarkable results about them have been proven including; Mostow rigidity, Margulis Super rigidity and the Quasi-isometric rigidity.
I will talk about a new Abelian category associated to an open variety with normal-crossings (or more generally, logarithmic) choice of compactification, which behaves in remarkable (and remarkably nice) ways with respect to changes of compactification and duality, and which first appeared in work on mirror symmetry.
The talk is based on the joint work with Yanki Lekili. The associative Yang-Baxter equation
is a quadratic equation related to both classical and quantum Yang-Baxter equations. It appears naturally in connection with triple Massey products in the derived category of
coherent sheaves on elliptic curve and its degenerations. We show that all of its nondegenerate trigonometric solutions are obtained from Fukaya categories of some noncompact surfaces. We use this to prove that any two simple vector bundles on a cycle of projective lines are related by a sequence of spherical twists.
Zilber's trichotomy conjecture, in modern formulation, distinguishes three flavours of geometries of strongly minimal sets --- disintegrated/trivial, modular, and the geometry of an ACF. Each of these three flavours has a classic ``template'' --- a set with no structure, a projective space over a prime field, and an algebraically closed field, respectively. The class of ab initio constructions with which Hrushovski refuted the conjecture features a new flavour of geometries --- non-modular, yet prohibiting any algebraic structure.
Title: The behavior of rational points in one-parameter families
Abstract: How often does a "random" algebraic plane curve f(x,y) = 0
have a solution with rational coordinates? In one-parameter "twist"
families of elliptic curves, Goldfeld conjectured that there should be
a rational point exactly half of the time. Recent progress towards
this conjecture makes use of Selmer groups, and I'll explain the
geometric idea underlying their construction. I'll also describe
results for families of curves of higher genus, and abelian varieties
of higher dimension.
Abstract: Paul Larson proved that under Martin's axiom and large continuum there are no Laver ideals over aleph_1. He asked about weakly Laver ideals under some forcing axiom.
We shall address two issues:
1. Under Martin's axiom and the continuum is above aleph_2, there are no weakly Laver ideals over aleph_1..
2. Under Baumgartner's axiom, the parallel of Larson's theorem holds for ideals over aleph_2.
We shall prove that there is a sequence of Boolean algebras for which the ultraproduct of the lengths divided by an ultrafilter is strictly less than the length of the product algebra.
This is a joint work with Saharon Shelah.