To a linear differential equation on the projective line with finitely many points of singularities, is associated a monodromy group; when the singularities are "reguar singular", then the monodromy group gives more or less complete information about the (asymptotics of the ) solutions.

The cases of interest are the hypergeometric differential equations, and there is much recent work in this area, centred around a question of Peter Sarnak on the arithmeticity/thin-ness of these monodromy groups. I give a survey of these recent results.